Concrete is most important part in every construction. Building, road, Power plant, Tunnels. Bridges, highways, Gutters, Airports Everywhere Concrete is must. Concrete is always designed according to it’s needs. this is why concrete is categorized in some types. Types of concrete is based on It’s ingredient’s nature, Its strength or properties, or where it is prepared to be used.
Types Of concretes
Plain or Ordinary Concrete: –
It is most commonly used concrete in construction industry. Main ingredients in this concrete is Cement, Sand, Aggregates and water. Density of this concrete is about 2200 – 2500 Kg/CUM. Compressive strength is about 200-500 Kg/Centimeter Square. Tensile Strength is about 50-100 Kg/Centimeter Square.
Reinforced cement concrete: –
Most Commonly called as RCC. Steel is generally reinforced in this concrete to increase the tensile strength of the concrete. As only concrete is not good enough for tensile strength. High rise buildings, Bridges are most common applications of RCC.
Lightweight concrete: –
This concrete has low density. Any concrete whose density is less than 1920 Kg/CUM is called as lightweight concrete. Lightweight aggregates are used to form this type of concrete. It has low thermal conductivity. Log span bridges or long span decks is most common application for this type of concrete.
High Density concrete: –
This is also called as heavyweight concrete. Density of these concretes are 3000-4000 Kg/Cum. Heavy rocks or heavy aggregates used to form this type of concrete. Atomic power plant is one of application of High Density concrete as it is good to prevent radiation.
Precast concrete: –
Various shapes of concrete moulded in the factory site. Curb Stone, Poles, Lintels are one of examples of precast concrete. They are cast in factories and shifted to construction site after it gets hard. As concrete is good to mould in any shape. That is why decorative concretes are also one of examples of precast concrete.
Prestressed Concrete: –
It is a Reinforced type of concrete. In this concrete reinforced bars are tensioned to use in concrete. Such tensioned wires are held firm at each end while the concrete mix is placed. The result is that when the concrete sets and hardens, the whole concrete members, so the cast is put into compression. Some applications are like Bridges, long span roofs, Most structures with heavy dead load.
Air Entrained Concrete: –
Air entrainment is the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete. A concrete maker introduces the bubbles by adding to the mix an air entraining agent, a surfactant (surface-active substance, a type of chemical that includes detergents). The air bubbles are created during mixing of the plastic (easy flowing, not hardened) concrete, and most of them survive to be part of the hardened concrete. The primary purpose of air entrainment is to increase the durability of the hardened concrete, especially in climates subject to freeze-thaw; the secondary purpose is to increase workability of the concrete while in a plastic state in concrete.
Glass Concrete: –
This is type of concrete in which recycled glass is used. Grass reinforcement increases the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. This is also good in long run strength and good for thermal insulation.
Rapid Hardening Concrete: –
Hardening time of this concrete is very fast this is why it is used in underwater construction or in road repair work. It can be applicable where need is to set concrete fast. fats setting admixtures are used to form this concrete.
Asphalt Concrete: –
Asphalt and aggregates mixed together to form this type of concrete. It is used n the construction of roads and highways. Airport roads is also and important application. They can be hardened in just an hour. That is the reason for its vast usage in roads.
Lime Concrete: –
This was old form of concrete. In this concrete lime is used to form a binding with aggreges and soil. It was used before comment is invented. In todays world lime concrete is used in floors and domes.
Roller Compacted Concrete: –
This concrete is used in road construction as feeling material. Or it can be used in any structure where feeling material should have good strength. It is a lean concrete can be rolled using roller or heavy loads. Quantity of cement is very less in this type of concrete.
Stamped Concrete: –
This is ordinary concrete with some differences. These are used mostly for aesthetic or architectural purposes. A stamp of different shape and design placed on the concrete structures when they are in their plastic state to acquire an appealing look design. Colors can be used to for more attractive designs.
Pumped Concrete: –
This is a concrete which can be pumped. It is generally used in high-rise building, where concrete can be pumped from ground to required elevation. this concrete is workable enough for pumping. Workable admixtures are used for preparation of this concrete.
Vacuum Concrete: –
In this concrete more water is added to concrete before casting in the formwork. Then water is removed Vacuum pump. This is why it is called as vacuum concrete. This is done to achieve early strength of the concrete.
Permeable Concrete: –
As name indicates permeable concrete allows water to pass through it. This concrete has 15-20% voids, which helps to [pass water through it.
This is a ordinary concrete. Variation is in placing the concrete. It is placed with the help of high pressure nozzle. This process gives compaction and strength at the same time. Loose falling rocks from mountains, and inside the tunnel is most common application of this type of concrete.
Ready mix Concrete: –
This concrete is prepared at the concrete batching plants and transported at the construction site using truck mounted concrete mixers. Plant and site should not be far enough as if concrete initial setting starts then it will be affect o the strength of the concrete. Admixtures are used in concrete to increase setting time of the concrete.
Fiber Reinforced Concrete: –
It is also called as FRC. Fibers 10 to 20 microns in diameter and 10 to 50 mm in length is used in this type of concrete. Fiber material can be steel or plastic. It helps to increase resilience, tensile strength, flexibility of concrete. It resists the cracks formation in the concrete.
Self Consolidated Concrete: –
It is also called as self compacting concrete. if formwork is very slender of reinforcement used is very denser then chances of honeycombing increases. This type of concrete don’t need compaction to remove air voids in concrete. Workability of this concrete is very high.
Fly ash Concrete: –
Fly ash can be used as partial substitute to the fine aggregates or cement in the concrete. It can replace cement up to 20%. It can be economical in use and Fly ash can be used well, as it is a waste product in the thermal power plant. Fly ash particle must be finer than cement.
High Strength Concrete: –
If strength of the concrete is higher than 40Mpa then it is called as high strengt5h concrete. High strength concrete is also called as high performance concrete. It also has high fire resistance, low shrinkage, and high strength. It is used where high strength is required like heavy structure and structure which has heavy dead and live load, Like bridges.
Silica Fume Concrete: –
Silica fume is byproduct of silica. Silica fume is used as admixture in the concrete to increase strength of the concrete. It gives higher compressive and flexural strength to the concrete. It give slow workability to fresh concrete, improves cohesiveness. It is used in Highrise buildings, Parking lots, Nuclear waste storage facilities.
Ferro Cement Concrete: –
Ferro cement concrete should not be confused with fiber concrete. Ferro cement consists of closely spaced wire-meshes which are impregnated with a rich mix of cement mortar. Usually, 0.5 to 1.0 mm diameter steel wires are formed into meshes. Mortar 1:2 to 1:3 with a water-cement ratio of 0.4 to 0.45 is poured into the form-work with fabricated steel by using layers of the wire mesh. The steel content of this concrete will be as high as 300 to 500 kg/m3 of mortar. As the material consists of a large percentage of steel, it has high ductility and tensile strength.