Fly Ash Bricks
Fly Ash Brick is a masonry unit, made from fly ash, cement and sand(Fine Aggregate). These bricks have a pleasing color like cement, are uniform in shape and smooth in finish. The bricks are of dense composition, with/without a frog, free from visible cracks, warp-age, organic matter, pebbles and nodules of free lime.
They are lighter in weight than ordinary clay bricks and less porous too. The color of fly ash bricks can
be altered with the addition of admixtures during the process of brick making. They come in various sizes, but generally are similar to the sizes of clay bricks.
Sound insulation– It provides an acceptable degree of sound insulation.
Thermal properties-These bricks do not absorb heat; they reflect heat and give maximum light reflection without glare. Thermal conductivity is 0.90-1.05 W/m2 ºC (20-30% less than those of concrete blocks).
Fire resistance– Fly ash bricks have a good fire rating. It has no problems with vermin attacks or infestation.
Water absorption is 6-12% as against 20-25% for handmade clay bricks, reducing dampness of the walls.
Structural Capability– These bricks can provide advantages being available in several load-bearing grades, savings in mortar plastering, and giving smart-looking brickwork. High compressive strength eliminates breakages/wastages during transport and handling, the cracking of plaster is reduced due to lower thickness of joints and plaster and basic material of the bricks, which is more compatible with cement mortar. Due to its comparable density, the bricks do not cause any extra load for the design of structures and provides better resistance for earthquake loads due to panel action with high strength bricks.
Compressive strength of fly ash sand lime bricks is av. 9.00 N/mm2 (as against 3.50 N/mm2 for
handmade clay bricks)
Durability- These blocks are highly durable, after proper pointing of joints, the bricks can be directly painted in dry distemper and cement paints, without the backing coating of plaster. Rectangular faced with sharp corners, solid, compact and uniformly.
Buildability-The blocks have easy workability and high compressive strength eliminates breakages/wastage during handling giving a neat finish, with a lower thickness of joints and plaster. The construction technique remains the same as regular bricks ensuring easy change of material, without requiring additional training for the masons.
Availability– Though these bricks are abundantly available closer to thermal powerplants all over the country for obvious reasons, finding dealers in all major cities and towns wouldn’t be a problem.
The cost of the fly ash bricks is similar to the clay bricks or can be lower in urban areas where fly ash material is easily available.
The blocks being available in several load-bearing grades are suitable for use:
• Load bearing external walls, in low and medium-size structures.
• Non-load bearing internal walls in low and medium-size structures.
• Non-load bearing internal or external walls in high-rise buildings.
- Fly ash
- Lime gypsum
- Mixing the ingredients
- Pressing the mix in the machine
- Curing the brick for a stipulated period
Detail description of the manufacturing process:
The process of manufacturing of fly ash bricks is based on the reaction of lime with silica of fly ash to form calcium silicate hydrate ( c-s-h ) which binds the ingredients to form a brick. The quality of bricks obtained is highly dependant on the quality of fly ash. The manufacturing of LIME-FLY ASH bricks is generally designed such that they stand at par with burnt clay bricks used conventionally.
FLYASH: (usage 60-70 %) Apart from conforming to IS requirement the minimum requirement for
manufacturing of fly ash bricks are as follow :
- Loss of ignition- should not be more than 12 %
- Availability of MgO-should not be more than 5%
- Availability of siO2 -should not be more than 35 %
- Availability of Al2O3- should not be more than 15 %
LIME: (usage 8-15%) Lime is a very important ingredient used for the manufacturing of bricks, hence it should satisfy the following minimum requirement : Lime, while the slaking process should not attain less than 60 degrees Celsius temperature and slaking time should not be more than 15 minutes. The availability of Cao should be a minimum of 60%. MgO content should be a maximum of 5%. GYPSUM: (usage 2- 5%) It is added to mix in order to accelerate the hardening process and acquiring the early strength. It should have a minimum of 35% of purity.
SAND: (usage 0- 8%) Additional of sand is optional, but to enhance the gradation, of the mix, addition of coarse sand is quite preferable. The addition of sand also enhances the resistivity of mix to the formation of laminar cracks caused due to entrapped air .
After all the materials are taken in the required proportion as mention above the first step involved in the mixing of the ingredients a fig below is shown how the mixing of these materials is done.
PRESSING THE MIX IN THE MACHINE
After the mixing process is over than the foremost steps that come in that are the pressing of the mix in the machine for getting the good shape of the bricks and good strength also. Fig below shows the machine which is used for the pressing purpose.
Curing of Bricks– After the mixing and pressing process is over curing is very important if it is not cured properly than the proper strength is not gained and as a result, the final bricks form cannot be used for any type of the formwork. Proper curing of bricks is very important for the bricks to regain their strength. It should be cured for a period of two weeks. Since it is prepared from the waste material so it regains a cementation property after proper curing is done. After the curing process is over the brick is now ready for the use.
Advantages and Disadvantages
- it is Durable.
- It has a low water absorption tendency.
- It also consumes low mortar.
- It is economical and ecofriendly.
- Low energy consumption.
- No emission of greenhouse gases.
- Needs skill labors.
- Needs a lot of care while manufacturing.
- The initial cost is more.